Nose breathing and mouth breathing
A study by Dr Shapiro from the Seattle Children's Hospital, showed that in comparison with children who breathed through the nose, children who breathe through the mouth, had longer faces with narrower upper jaws, and retruded lower jaws.
This supports the hypothesis that children with nasal obstruction have distinct facial characteristics. The Orthodontic literature concerning upper airway compromise as it relates to aberrant dento facial development is quite sizable.
It is reasoned that upper airway constriction, produces chronic mouth breathing especially in the long faced child.
Chronic mouth-breathing calls forth the recruitment of the perioral and suprahyoid muscles.
The increased tonicity of these muscle groups often produces a negative effect on dento facial form and function.
The long faced syndrome is characterized by gummy smile, Crossbite, high palate, thin tension nose, and nasal obstruction.
Pediatricians, family G.Ps, E.N.Ts and family Dentists should be aware that these issues can be picked up with the latest 3D/4D scans, which can pick up large adenoids and tonsils without the invasive clinical exam.